Give it a go: Coastal foraging
Before the rise of agriculture, our ancestors were foragers. Many of our vegetables, like carrots, parsnips and spinach, came from the coast before we began harvesting seeds and growing them in gardens and on farms.
We caught up with Devon-based foraging teacher Jacky Pearce (Wilderness Woman) to learn more about these incredible edibles – and what you can search for on your next coastal adventure.
Where to look
Rockpools are welcoming environments for algae and seaweeds. Rocks and banks around the water's edge are good spots to look for things like sea beet (sea spinach) and samphire.
But don't write off the sandy beaches – dewberries and wild leeks thrive in sand dunes which can yield species that are harder to find elsewhere.
And take the time to look further back from the shore. Woodland areas are often full of wild garlic in spring and a great place to look for fungi in the autumn.
Wherever you are, get out and take a closer look to see what you can find.
Tip: Avoid areas where storm overflows release sewage (Surfers Against Sewage has an interactive map you can use to check).
Seaweed is an abundant and underrated food source. It’s high in protein (up to 25% in some species) and rich in iodine, magnesium and trace minerals such as iron, calcium and vitamins A and C. This superfood contains all trace elements needed by humans.
It can be eaten raw or dried, on its own as a snack or ground to add flavour to your cooking. It can even be used to make bread. With so many uses and so much nutrition, it's definitely worth tapping into this sustainable resource – and it's likely you already are. Next time you're shopping, look out for the ingredient 'alginate'. Derived from seaweed, it's used to help set jellies and thicken drinks and ice cream.
Remember, only take what you need – a little goes a long way with seaweed – and remember to rinse or soak it in sea water to liberate grit and any small creatures sheltering in the fronds!
Jacky says: ‘All species commonly found are edible, but some are tastier than others and some hardier species need cooking first. Embrace trial and error to find the ones you enjoy.’
Tip: Seaweeds and other marine life are susceptible to heavy metal pollution and agrochemical runoff from farmland – so avoid foraging near areas of heavy industry, or estuaries when it's been raining heavily.
A forager's favourite, dulse can be added to soda bread or used to flavour and thicken a broth. Cook it first to soften it. Some species are said to have a bacon flavour when fried. Red dulse grows a little further out than sea lettuce, you’ll notice its colour contrasting against the rocks.
Awarded EU protected food status, Laverbread is a Welsh delicacy made by simmering the laver for 6 hours. It’s then spread on toast, or mixed with oats and fried. Perfect for a slow cooker.
A delicate green seaweed that can be eaten raw or fried. It's delicious when mixed into creamy mashed potatoes or dried and sprinkled on new potatoes.
Although they share a name, dulse and pepper dulse look very different. It's described as the 'truffle of the sea' or ‘spice of the sea' for good reason. This elusive little seaweed tastes like a mixture of garlic, pepper and mushroom.
Fun fact: Love the song of the sea? Bladderwrack, a common kelp along our shores, can be dried and used as a whistle! For more fun ideas for exploring our coastlines, check out our article on beachcombing.
Vegan Hebridean seaweed broth
Adapted from recipe in Simply Seaweed by Leslie Ellis (ISBN: 1-898697-45-0).
- 50g dulse, cooked and chopped
- 1 medium potato, mashed (try creamy sea lettuce mash!)
- 25g vegetable spread
- 1tsp lemon juice
- salt and pepper
- 750ml soy milk
- Melt the spread and add the dulse, mashed potato, spread and lemon juice.
- Gradually stir in the milk and return to heat.
- Gently simmer for 20 minutes, stirring often.
- Season and serve.
Vegan dulse (or dillisk) soda bread
Adapted from recipe by the late Gavin Galvin of Drimcong House, Co Galway.
- 25g dulse, cooked and chopped
- 110g melted sunflower spread
- 1 large carrot, grated
- 4tsp egg replacer, whisked with 110ml cold water
- 50g castor sugar
- 250g plain flour, sieved
- 1.5tsp baking powder
- Preheat oven to 140ºC.
- Place chopped dulse in a sieve and soak in cold water for 5–10 minutes, pat dry.
- Mix egg replacer, dulse, carrot, sugar, spread and salt.
- Fold in sieved flour and baking powder thoroughly.
- The mix will be wet so use plenty of flour when tipping out onto your baking sheet.
- Form into a round loaf and cut a cross on the top with a floured knife.
- Bake for 40–50 minutes.
- Check the tides. This is a tidal activity so make sure you're aware of your surroundings and any headlands or rocky outcrops that could cause you to become cut off.
- Check the forecast (including the wind). A strong onshore wind can drive the water in faster than the tide table predicts.
- Tell someone where you're going and when you'll be back.
- Go with someone. With slippery rocks and careful timing involved, it's best to make sure you're not alone.
- Don't get too close to cliffs. Erosion can create unpredictable cliff collapse. When looking for plants growing on rocks and banks, focus your search on low banks.
- Never touch anything you're unsure of. Some poisonous plants (such as the notorious hemlock) can look similar to related species (such as wild parsnip). Learn the dangerous plants, as well as the edibles.
- Book a course. Nothing beats getting out on the coast with someone local who knows their stuff.
Give something back
While you're enjoying our coastal bounty, try to leave the beach a little lovelier than when you arrived. With more and more trash on most beaches now, be prepared and take a rubbish bag.
And for sustainability, follow the three or none rule. If you come across three flowers, take one, but if there are only two, leave both.
If you’ll be exploring the coast, take a look at our coastal walking advice to make sure you stay safe.